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Hydraulic and Pneumatic Filters

The typical hydraulic system is cleaned by a single filter in the circuit. Often this filter is located on the inlet line in front of the pump, to protect the pump and downstream components;

so used, it is occasionally called a "suction filter" or "suction strainer." Many pump manufacturers object to this filter location, claiming that it "starves" the pump inlet, so the filter may be located at other points in the circuit, such as on the return line, in a pressure line, or on a bypass line.

Filtration for pneumatic systems is handled quite differently. In most industrial pneumatics, compressed air is supplied from a single compressor to a large number of operating systems, as a plant resource, much like light or electricity. Individual filters are used on the separate systems -- sometimes more than one filter per system.

Often the filters are found in conjunction with regulators and sometimes lubricators comprising a filter-regulator-lubricator (frl) for the system. Filters are rated on the ability to retain contaminants of certain size levels. ISO 4406 is a hydraulic cleanliness rating system based on the number of particles larger than 5 and 15 ¡Øm in a 1-ml fluid sample. A standardized chart is then referenced to convert the particle counts into the ISO 4406 rating format. For example, a 1-ml sample containing 140 5-¡Øm particles (ISO 4406 range number = 14) and 28 15-¡Øm particles (ISO 4406 range number = 12) has an ISO 4406 cleanliness rating of 14/12. ISO 4406 is an internationally recognized standard for expressing the level of particulate contamination in hydraulic fluid, and for specifying required cleanliness levels for hydraulic components and systems.

The widely accepted system provides a consistent and meaningful vehicle for dialog between manufacturers and users. Some users and manufacturers of hydraulic systems have complained about a potential problem with interpreting.

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